Director, Centre for Environmental Studies,
http://hazmat.dot.gov/pubs/erg/erg2004.pdf (Emergency Response System)
NAGARJUNA SAGAR NUCLEAR PLANT
The Vengurlekar Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission having considered the impact of low flows in summer into rivers and lakes and increasing need for water to cool the condensers suggested that the reactors must be located on the sea coast. The location of the Tarapur and Kalpakkam reactors are in tune with the stipulated siting criteria. Experts criticized that
For a design basis accident in a pressurized water reactor, a core-melt down is accompanied by a steam explosion due to the contact of the molten fuel with the water that remains in the reactor vessel. Even if such an accident were to occur once in a million years, the radioactive substances are expected to get released into the atmosphere about 2.30hours after the accident. Although the population is likely to be moved radially away from the reactor upto about 30km. the adverse health impact causes 3300 early fatalities. 45,000 early illnesses and 1400 cancers per year. In
Dr.David E Lilienthal, the first Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission in his book “Atomic Energy – A New Start” has admitted belatedly that “nuclear technology is not really so advanced as was assumed in 1950’s. It is not dependable enough. It is not safe enough”. And he rightly questioned “the moral right to promote and sell such a complicated, immature and fundamentally unsafe nuclear system particularly to societies whose technology is far less developed”.
In fact, public acceptance of nuclear plants today and that too in the aftermath of
These radiation safety criteria require the establishment of an exclusion zone around the plant without access to the public and a sterilised zone around the exclusion zone within which only natural growth of population is permitted. The population distribution upto 30kms around the plant is kept in view to ensure that in the unlikely event of a serious accident, effective emergency actions, including evacuation of population can be taken up immediately. The sterilized zone is often called as a low population zone with very few people who can be evacuated should the need arise. According to the siting criteria approved by the experts in 1963, the population upto 16km around the reactor should be within 10,000 and upto 40km it should be below one lakh. The Russian stipulated long ago that the distance between a major town and the reactor should be 35km. According to the
By stating there is no township with a population exceeding one lakh within 30kms from the proposed site of the reactor at Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the Atomic Energy officials cannot deny the violation of safety norms and environmental protection guidelines as Vijayapuri township with about 40,000 population lies within 16km of the site. Moreover the tiger sanctuary, the historical museum of ancient Buddhistic monuments, tourist centre and the major Sagar lake with abundant fishery resources lie within close proximity of the reactor site. Vijayapuri town does not possess a road lay-out with connections in different directions and the existing mountainous tract with many curves becomes an obstacle for evacuation the population during accidents.
Since the waters intended for drinking, food fisheries and animal husbandry will get polluted public health in coastal districts as also Nalgonda and Khammam districts is bound to suffer.
If the socio-economic consequences scenario of he SIZE-WELL reactor of
All the people within the zone of influence from the reactors proposed at Nagarjuna Sagar must be evacuated. Evacuation must be completed within 6 hours for 2 to 5km, 12 hours for 5 to 25km; 24 hours for 25 to 75km and 48 hours for distance beyond 75km down wind from Nagarjuna Sagar as per the British accident scenario for the 1100MW. Size-Well reactor based on a wind speed of 5 meters per second.; rainfall of 1 milli-meter per hour and neutral stability conditions of the atmosphere.
After thorough scrubbing and decontamination of lands, equipment, roads and residences due to radioactive pollution from an accident people may be permitted to return to their original homes along with their properties and cattle after about 3 weeks upto 170km one year upto 140 km, 5 years upto 115km, 10 years upto 98km and 20 years upto 77km distances from the Nuclear Plant site at Nagarjuna sagar. Depending upon the weather conditions during the accident, some places will be more affected than others. The villages, towns and cities that will be affected during an accident are shown in the figure.
While Vijayapuri, Devarakonda, Miryalguda, Nalgonda, Suryapet, Huzurnagar, Macherla, Gurazala lie within 77km, Hyderbad, Bhngir, Jangaon, Kodada, Khammam, Jaggayyapet, Nandigama, Sattenapalli, Narasaraopet, Chilakaluripet fall within 115km distance from the proposed nuclear plant site. While Wanaparti, Kolhapur, Guntur and Vijayawada lie within 140km, Sangareddi, Tiruvur, Nuzvid,Gannavaram, Vuyyuru, Tenali Nidubrolu and other important towns and villages in the districts of Medak, Nalgonda, Warangal, Khammam, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Prakasm districts lie within 170km distance from Nagarjuna Sagar.
Without placing the risk and environmental impact analysis reports before the people of Andhra Pradesh, the atomic energy experts are denying them their right to healthy living. Without sincre efforts to explain the levels of air and water pollution expected from the nuclear power plants and its waste treatment systems and their immediate short-term and long-term impact on health and environment they cannot force the State Pollution Control Board to grant permission and thereby sign the death warrant of the people.
In the light of the bombing of nuclear reactors in