Friday, October 19, 2012

SITE EVALUATION REPORT FOR TWO KUDANKULAM REACTORS



REPORT ON EVALUATION OF KUDANKULAM SITE FOR LOCATION
OF 2 X 1000 MWe VVER NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
(from NPCIL reports, NEERI EIA report of 2003 for Kudankulam Nuclear plant) 
http://www.aerb.gov.in/T/PUBLICATIONS/CODESGUIDES/S-8.PDF       [siting criteria]

1. INTRODUCTION
The acceptability of a site for locating a Nuclear Power Plant is dependent not only on site characteristics, related primarily and directly to safety, but also on a large number of other aspects which are only indirectly related to safety.  These include the reliability and stability of the electrical grid, the adequacy of communications etc.
The siting of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) generally involves studies in three stages. Namely:
1)      Site survey stage: The purpose of a site survey is to identify one or more preferred candidate sites after both safety and non-safety considerations have been taken into account.  This involves the study and investigation of a  large region.  It results in the rejection of unacceptable sites and is followed by systematic screening and comparison of remaining sites.
2)      Site evaluation stage:  This stage involves the study and investigation of one or more of the preferred candidate sites to evaluate their acceptability from various considerations and in particular from the safety considerations.  The site-related design bases are established at this stage.  Subsequent to this a preliminary safety analysis report is submitted for clearance before site construction is started.
3)      Pre-operational stage: This stage includes studies and investigations of the selected site after the start of construction and before the start of operation in order to complete and refine the assessment of site characteristics and to confirm assumptions made in the safety analysis of the reactor as a part of the final safety analysis report.  The base line data on environment are also established at this stage.
The stage one is within the scope of the work of the site selection committee.  The present committee aims to have a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of a site mainly from safety consideration and ensure that the plant site combination does not constitute an unacceptable risk.  However, in view of the fact that some non-safety considerations may affect safety related aspects, such items also have to be studied.  It is to be understood that the present committee has evaluated the site from screening considerations.  The site related design parameters/bases are to be established at appropriate stages.  The review is based on the available information on population and industrial growth and other proposed facilities at and around the site in addition to safety related aspects like seismo-tectonic environment, geology, hydrology, extreme meteorological phenomenon etc.  The site is evaluated from the following consideration.
1.       Effect of the region of the site on the plant
2.       Effect of the plant on the region’
3.       Population considerations.
While the first of the above factors decide the safety of the plant due to site related natural and man-induced events, the second factor influences the potential radiological impact from the plant on the environment.  Population consideration is important for emergency planning.
The acceptability of a site for a particular NPP  depends on the existence of engineering solution to site related problems which gives assurance that the proposed plant can be built and operated within acceptably low risk to the population of the region.
IAEA guidelines (1,2) have been kept in mind for the site evaluation.
2. REVIEW FOR THE SUITABILITY OF THE SITE AT KUDANKULAM
2.1 GENERAL CONSDIERATION
2.1.1. SAFETY-RELATED ASPECTS
Potential site-specific natural hazards and man-induced events have been evaluated for initial appraisal of their impact on the plant design and the engineerability under the given circumstances.  Subsequently these studies form the design bases
Among the natural hazards, the following aspects as relevant to site have been studied.
i)                    Surface faulting
ii)                   Seismicity
iii)                 Suitability of subsurface material
iv)                 Flood and
v)                  Extreme meteorological phenomena (e.g. cyclone)
Because of rocky substrata slope instability, soil liquefaction, surface collapse, subsidence or uplift are not applicable for the present site.
Man-induced events include accidents due to
i)                    Air traffic
ii)                   Vehicular road traffic
iii)                 Industrial and Military activities in the immediate vicinity of the site.
Capability of dispersion in air and water are studied for possible radiological impact on environment. The availability of adequate cooling water supply for the Ultimate Heat Sink is the central safety issue.  Feasibility of implementing effective emergency actions has also been considered.
2.12 NON-SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
(Economic, Technical, Environmental and Social Aspects)
These are primarily related to engineering feasibility.  However, some of the factors may indirectly be related to the safety of the NPP.
The factors considered are:
i)                    Electricity network
ii)                   Availability of cooling water
iii)                 Transport routes
iv)                 Topography
v)                  Industrial support at site
vi)                 Non-radiological impact on the environment (e.g. chemical and thermal pollution, industrial growth and its impact etc.)
2.1.3. OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMMITTEE
The committee has studied all site related data submitted by NPC (3,4,5)and has, in accordance with the criteria mentioned above, made a review of the suitability of the Kudankulam site for locating a nuclear power station having two units of 1000 MWe VVER reactor.
The review findings are presented in Tables 1and II
3.ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN
The committee recommends that the following  actions should be taken at appropriate stages.
3.1       Aspects related to site
1)      ODC committee of NPC to evaluate suitability of transportation of ODC at design stage.
2)      Maximum Flood Level should be estimated accurately considering IAEA safety Gudie 50-SG-S10B.  Revised report of CWPRS should be submitted to Design Safety Committee
3)      Analysis for the quality of construction water is to be carried out
4)      In order to enhance additional reliability for water supply, which is essential for functioning of various safety systems of the reactor, intake well at Pechiparai Dam should be provided at lower elevation than the minimum draw-down level of the reservoir.  However, it should be ensured by proper management of water distribution that the water level is maintained above this minimum level.
5)      Adequate storage of fresh water for prolonged safe shutdown of the reactors is to be provided within plant boundary for safety related systems.  Ground water source should be explored.
6)      Environmental Survey Laboratory should be set up at site and instruments are to be installed at site to collector meteorological data and background radiation.
7)      Site related design considerations such as seismic aspects, etc. are to be established before submission of PSAR.
8)      The committee has been informed that detail subsoil investigations have been carried out (12). Bore-hole investigations are to be carried out at the proposed location of various buildings and structures.  The report should be forwarded to design group for taking into account at the time of actual design.
9)      Power evaluation studies particularly that influence the plant grid interaction should be persued.  Feasibility of operation on islanding mode may be studied in collaboration with CEA.  In addition availability of a reliable dedicated startup power source of adequate capacity should be examined.
10)   Stipulations made by various state and central authorities in giving clearance  should be met.  In addition, plantation in the area under control of the project should be taken up along with site development.
11)   Tamilnadu legislation to control population growth beyond natural growth within the sterilized zone is to be implemented.
12)   Termination of the lease in 1994 for lime stone quarry.
3.2   ASPECTS RELATED TO DESIGN:
1)      Radiological impact should be assessed with proper source terms and relevant dispersion characteristics of the site.  Dose limits prescribed should be met at a  distance of 1.6km in the event of greater exclusion radius adopted by NPC
2)      Stack height to be checked by Health Physics Division, BARC considering topography and dispersion characteristics.
3)      Model studies should be taken up for intake and outfall structure for thermal pollution and recirculation.
4)      Studies on Biofouling and Jelly-fish etc. that may affect the water supply should be take up.
5)      Studies on accretion/erosion rate around the plant site should be carried out.  If required, proper protection should be provided.
6)      Design should be engineered to meet site related design basis events.
7)      At least two evacuation routes from plant site during an emergency should be provided.
4.RECOMMENDATIONS:
The committee is of the opinion that Kudankulam site meets the major criteria for siting 2 x 1000MWe VVER units. The committee at the same time recommends that the observations made in the preface and the actions recommended in Section 3 above need to be implemented at appropriate stages.
REFERENCES:
1.       IAEA-code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Siting.  IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-S International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1979.
2.       Site Survey for Nuclear Power Plants.  IAEA Safety Series No.50-SG-S9.  International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1984.
3.       Environmental Data on proposed Kudankulam site for submission to Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board for 2 x 1000MWe VVER nuclear power station.
4.       Write up on Kudankulam site –DAE
5.       Siting data in AERB standard format. (Received from NPC vide letter NPC/KK/24/1032 dt. 7-3-89)
6.       Layout of main plant building for 2 x 1000 MWe  VVER project at Kudankulam.  Drawing No.KK/10,000/2001/GA/120.
7.       CWPRS Pune Report: “Safe Grade Elevation for the Proposed Nuclear Power Station at Kudankulam, Tamilnadu”.
8.       Draft report on Earthquake Design Basis for Kudankulam site, DAE, 1988-AK Ghosh and DC Banerjee.
9.       Appendix to Part-I of Site Selection Committee report.
10.   Power Transmission System for Kudankulam Atomic Power Project-CEA report.
11.   Letter NPC/KK/24 dated 16-3-89 received from NPC
12.   Brief note from NPC on  “Geological setup of Kudankulam site”
SALIENT FEATURES OF KUDANKULAM SITE CONSIDERED DURING SITE EVALUATION
S.No
SITE CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCING THE NPP
SPECIFICATIONS/
DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS
OBSERVATIONS FOR KUDANKULAM SITE
REMARKS
1.
TOPOGRAPHY
Plain Topography
Elevation +3 m to 45m above MSL. Area measuring 1km x  2km available (3) (6)
Terrain suitable Sufficient land available for future expansion.
2.
ACCESSIBILITY
Recommendation for ODC transport:
1)All consignments/equipments with weight <30 p="p" ton:="ton:">
USSR-Tuticorin:by ship, Tuticorin-site:by road or on barges by sea route
2)All consignments > 30 tons USSR-site: by ship and  barges. To be unloaded at Jetty within the plant.

i)Nearest Broad gauge rail head

Kanyakumari (27 Km), Valliyur (27km)

ii)Nearest national highway

NH-7at Kanyakumari 27km, Valliyur (27km)

iii)Nearest sea port

Tuticorin (100km)

iv)Nearest district road

Coastal road from Kanyakumari
3.
Construction Facilities

i)Construction materials

Coarse agreegates available at Anjugramam (4km) Sand available at Hanumanathyovari Road (7km) Bricks available at Panagudi (27km)
More sources will be established at construction stage.

ii)Construction Power
26 MVA +2MVA for township
Panagudi substation (27km) -110KV line exists
110KV line from Kodyar power station is also being considered
Required power will be made available.

iii)Construction Water
3.5 Cu.Sec (350 Cu.m per hour)
Initially limited supply tobe tapped from ground water sources.
Subsequently the demand will be met from Pechiparai dam
Quality of construction water is likely to be acceptable.  Analysis of water will be carried out.

iv)Infrastructure facilities (e.g minor workshop etc.)

Nagercoil (30km) and Tuticorin (100km)

4.
Availability of Power Supply and Transmission Lines

i)Start-up power
60 MVA per unit
Available from main state grid and Tuticorin Thermal Power Station (plant capacity 630 MWe) 220KV line to be drawn from Tuticorin


ii) Power evacuation scheme

Feasibility as per preliminary study conducted by CEA. Detail study is in progress.
Present grid capacity 12832 MWe. Nuclear 470 MWe.  Projected capacity in 1995 will be 27541 MWe. Nuclear 1910 MWe.
5.
Availability of Water

i) Condenser cooling
6000 cu.sec (on once-through basis)
Sea water cooling on once-through basis.
Siltcontent:60-100ppm
Particle size:75 microns
Temp: 26-290C (5)
No constraint.  Titanium tubes will be used.
Study on biofouling and jelly fish that may affect the water supply will be taken at design stage.
Model study will be taken up for intake and outfall structure (5)

ii)Fresh water for makeup and domestic use
10 cu.sec
Assured by state Govt. One pipe line from Pechiparai dam (at 65km) to be laid.
pH:7,
Dissolved solids:25mg/l
SS : negligible
Turbidity : 5 mg/l (5)
Dam storage 4.45 TMC Dead storage can account for 3 years drought.
6.
Township
400 acres,  400 acres 7km from the site (3)







    Table-2
SITE CHARACTERISTICS  -  AFFECTING SAFETY OF PLANT
S.No.
Site Characteristics influencing the NPP
Desirable Characteristics
Observations for Kudankulam
Remarks
1.
Geology

i)Foundation conditions depths of bed rock and type

Bedrock at 5-16 m below ground. 


ii) Strength
Maximum intensity of loading 6kg/sq.cm at RB
Dry strength:650kg/sq.cm
Wet strength:450kg/sq.cm (5)


iii)Ground water
Below >1m
5-8m below ground gradient towards Sea (5)

2
Natural Events

i) Coastal erosion

Erosion insignificant with respect to life of station.  Nearest main plant structure from shore about 120m away from the sea base line.
Layout for the main plant still under consideration.  Figure of 120m estimate on the basis of 7m as the ground elevation at main plant building.

ii)Flood

Maximum flood level considering tidal range wave run-up and maximum storm surge 5.9 m above chart datum of 0.0 (7)
Grade level of reactor above 7m from MSL after CWPRS report elevation will be changed if necessary

iii) Tsunami

Not significant as per CWPRS
1m height of wave considered due to tsunami effect

iv)Wind, storm, cyclone

Storm speed: 112km/hr
Storm surge accounted . Exceedance probability 5% as per CWPRS
Engineering capability to design for wind load exists

v)Slope instability

Not applicable for rocky substrata


vi)soil liquefaction

Not applicable for rocky substrata


vii) Seismotectonic
No active fault within 5km of NPP.  Engineering capability for stipulated earthquake acceleration should be possible
No active fault within 5km
Site is in seismic zone II Epicenter at Trivandrum at 90km
PGA is  0.06g
Engineering capability to design exists.USSR experts confirmed with ground checks.

viii)site surface collapse subsidence or uplift

Not applicable to rock substrata


ix)Failure of cooling water supply

a)Fresh water pipe rupture

Storage for safety related system will be provided for prolonged safe shut down of reactor (5)
Plant operating procedurs and pond capacity will be decided to ensure water requirement for decay heat removal from the 2 units for a prolonged period.  Ground water source will also be explored as standby back-up arrangement.

b)Failure of upstream dam

Flooding not of consequence as site is far away (50km) and the site is not in the course of the main channel. Intake well at Pechiparai dam to be provided and supply to be taken from upstream Kodyar storage for extreme contingency.  Site storage is to be provided for safety related systems.

3)
MAN-INDUCED EVENTS AFFECTING SAFETY OF THE PLANT

i)Aircraft impact

a)Nearest Airport
SDV 8km
Trivandurm (90 km)


b) Nearest Air Strip
SDV 4 km
-do-


c)Military Airport
SDV 15 km
-do-


ii)Toxic gas release
SDV 5 km
No industry using explosives or having potential for explosion within 10km

iii)Chemical explosion
SDV 5 km
No industry using explosion or having potential for explosion within 10km

iv) Industrial or military accident

No industry or military establishment within 10km

v)Surface vehicle impact or explosion

No national highway or railway siding within 10km.  Coastal road from Kanyakumari to Tuticorin is about 4km from the site
4
METEOROLOGY

i)Wind speed and direction

Observation at Kanyakumari: Variation of daily average Velocity:6-30km/hr.
Direction: From West (44.5% and NE (16.2%)

ii)Rain

Annual average rainfall: 810mm

iii)Atmospheric Temperature

Monthly avg:23-33oC 
Extreme:19.2-36.8oC

iv)Humidity

Monthly avg:65-80% RH    Extreme:60-85% RH

v)Atmospheric stability

Environmental survey laboratory will be set up to study.
Instruments will be installed.
5
USE OF LAND
Exclusion zone: 34% of area lies in sea. Remaining 650-750ha. Of land (no forest), mostly private owned is baren and unirrigated /poorly cultivable. 60% area within 10km lies in sea.   A lime stone quarry of about 70 acres falls within the sterilized zone.  The lease for this area expires in 1994. Termiantion of the lease beyond theperiod has been requested.
6.
USE OF WATER
Ground water is limited  and used for drinking and has a gradient towards the sea.  No salt pans within 5km.  fisheries  development is as common as in coastal belt in the area of Idinthakari, Koothapuzh.  Fishing harbor is being developed at a Kanyakumari.  4000 tonnes is available. (4)
7.
 DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE FROM THE NPP

i)Solid Waste
Low level solid waste to be buried within exclusion zoneinleak-proof RCC valults/trenches/tile holes.  160-180m cu./year of cemented waste including spent absorption materials, 40m cu/yr of compacted waste and 5m cu/y of cemented ash will be generated from one reactor. (5)
Bore wells surrounding the solid waste burial area will be provided for monitoring migration of activities.


ii)Liquid waste
To be diluted to 2 x 10E-7 micro Ci/ml when discharged into sea
Most of the radidoactivity in the liquid is removed in the Ion Exchange resin and as evaporator concentrate.  After above processing the liquid effluent from two units is estimated as 6000m cu/year with activity levels lesser or equal to 10E-9 ci/l.  This will be further diluted by condenser cooling water to meet the limits allowed by AERB
6000 cusecs of sea water available for dilution while sea water less than 1 cusec required to achieve the specified limits.

iii)Gase release
Stack height is 100m.  Use of high efficiency (0.3 micron) particulate absolute filter will help to comply with authorized limits for particulate activity.  The estimated gaseous discharges from 2 units as following.
Nuclides   
       Average daily release Ci/day
Noble gases
2200
I-131
30 x 10E-4
Longlife Nuclides
0.012
Shortlife nuclides
0.26
It is understood that specific detailed information regarding waste and radioactive releases will be available along with PSAR for review
8
RADIOLOGICAL IMPACT

i)During normal operation
AERB
Based on releases vide para7, preliminary estimates indicate very low dose rates 11.24 mrem/yr to the individual at 1.6km exclusion radius.  Both the water and air routes have been considered in the above estimates.

ii)During design basis accident conditions
10rem: for whole body, 50rem for child thyroid at exclusion radius
For all design basis accidents adequate engineering safety features shall be provided to meet the specified requirements
DBA calculations will be carried out at the design stage.
9
THERMAL POLLUTION
Not significant.  Intake and outfall will be well separated.  Depth of sea water and large dilution due to sea will avoid thermal pollution
Model studies will be carried out at CWPRS Pune.  The requirements of TamilNadu Pollution Control Board should be met.
10
STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION OF FRESH AND SPENT FUEL
Space for storage of fresh fuel for 5 years plus one core charge will be provided.  Each unit layout can store spent fuel of 5 ractors years in the spent fuel poor located inside the containment.  Besides this, space will be available to unload one core inventory.
50 Tonne of spent fule will be discharged annually from the two reactors.  After adequate cooling inside thepool, it will be shipped to Soviet Union by sea route in hermatically sealed casks.  Special jetty provided withinthe plant area will be used for transfer of cask to the soviet ships so that spent fuel remains within plant boundary at all stages during the process of shipment of irradiated fuel.
11
FUEL REPROCESSING FACILITY

Reprocessing not planned at this site.

12.
POPULATION CONSIDERATIONS

i)Population within 2km radius exclusion zone
No habitation
 No resident population


ii)Population within 5km radius sterilized zone
Lessthan 20,000 population density <2 average="average" p="p" state="state">
Total population:15,000
3 villages in this area Kudankulam, Idinthakarai and Erukkanthorai
Tamilnadu legislation to control population growth beyond natural growth within the sterilized zone to be implemented.

iii)Population within 10km radius zone
No center >10000
No population center with more than 10000 people,  Total population 40,842 (1981 census) Population density 130 per sq.km


iv)Population within 30km radius zone
No centre >1,00,0001
No population center with more than 1 lakh people. 11 centers have population morethan 10,000.  Nagercoil (at 30km) has a population of 1,71,641


v) Population within 50km radius

33 population centers with population more than 10,000 (4)

13.
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS CONSIDERATIONS

3 routes for possible evacuation.  Schools andother public buildings exist for adequate temporary shelter.
Nagercoil (30km) Tirunelveli (100km) and Tuticorin (100km) can provide communication medical facilities and administrative support
Draft proposal on off-site emergency preparedness plans already submitted to AERB
14
ADDITIONAL STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS OF THE CENTRAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS
Clearance for the following has been obtained:
Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
Shore Protection Committee of TN Government
State Committee on Environment,
Ministry of Environment and Forests (Government of  India)
Stipulation made in the clearance documents should be adhered to.






This is the retyped version of original report, slightly modified
Retyped version checked by
VR Rajagopalan, ACE-LWR Design            MC Barman, ACE-Civil KKHA  
May 2012

2 comments:

Dare2Write said...

Good Information - Keep it up

Indian agg - blogillu

Diwali said...

India should be a union like european union where each state become a country and have sovereign power to decide its fate. Punjab,Tamil Nadu, UP, Maharashtra, Assam, and all other states when become a country can have a better administration and progress. It is obvious a few politicians in central cannot administer and fulfill wish of 1.2 billion people. Kudankulam is a clear case of central governments dont understand the wish of the local people. While keeping a lot of central power, they couldnt provide simple electricity/water supply peacefully agreeable to the locals without problems/corruption. Decentralize and distribute the administrative, executive and judicial power,then each state can look after their problems much better.

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Born in 1932 at Mudinepalli, near Gudivada, Krishna Dist. Andhra Pradesh, received Bachelors degree in Civil Engg., from Viswesaraiah Engineering College, Banglore (1956) and Masters Degree in Environmental Engineering from Rice university, Houston, Texas, (USA) (1962), Ph.D (Hony). Former Head of the Department of Civil Engineering and principal of College of Engineering, Andhra university.Formerly Hony.Professor in Andhra University,Manonmanian Sundarnar University,JNT University. Fellow of the Institution of Engineers,India Recipient of the University Grants Commissions National Award "Swami Pranavananda Award on Ecology and Environmental Sciences" for the year 1991. Recipient of Sivananda Eminent Citizen Award for 2002 by Sanathana Dharma Charitable Trust, Andhra Pradesh state. Presently Working as Director, centre for Environmental Studies, GITAM University, http://www.geocities.com/prof_shivajirao/resume.html http://www.eoearth.org/contributor/Shivaji.rao