Tuesday, February 1, 2011


The second Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal  headed by Brijesh Kumar conferred legal sanctity and support to the  large scale Krishna river water diversions by Karnataka and Maharashtra  in violation of the Bachawat Award.   The Tribunal reduced the 75% dependability of river water to 65% dependability and thereby increased annual dependable water for the upper states by violating the traditional norms.   Thus Telangana, Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra cannot any more depend upon the Krishna waters for sustaining the existing  irrigation projects in the AP State and that too after the tribunal ordered for increase the height of the Alamatti dam.  But since the AP State Government has the responsibility to prevent the ever growing farmers suicides due to the irrigation water scarcity immediate action must be taken to save the farmers and farm workers by providing water from alternative sources like Godavari waters including the flood water for the following reasons.
  1. Godavari water utilization can be considered to be more dependable because the upper states have not so far attempted to utilize their allotted share of water of at least 1000 TMC during the last decades particularly because of the unfavourable conditions like deep forests and steep mountain ranges. 
  2. Moreover due to climate change the Godavari catchment areas are likely to receive annually about 20 to 25% additional rainfall due to increased intensity and duration of the depressions and cyclones in the Bay of Bengal. 
  3. Even today the Inchampalli project is treated as a ill-conceived project as it is intended to produce 970 MW hydro-power and utilize only 85 TMC for cultivation of 7 lakh acres of paddy during Kharif season for the reason that the tail race waters are needed for delta irrigation and Polavaram projects.  This stand of the Government is wrong because at least 1000 TMC is available below Inchampalli due to the difference in the 75% dependable water supplies of 2860 TMC at Dowlaiswaram and 1550 TMC  at Inchampalli and this water is enough to take care of the irrigation needs under Godavari delta and other projects.
  4. All the available water of Godavari river at Inchampalli can be utilized for large scale hydro-power generation and irrigation of agriculture fields in Telangana and also transfer additional flood water for irrigation in Krishna delta, Rayalaseema and Tamil Nadu. 
  5. With the additional water supply to Tamil Nadu the water saved thereby in the Cauvery basin can be allotted to Karnataka state so that the Karnataka Government can transfer irrigation water from upper Bhadra and Alamatti to feed the upland areas of Anantapur, Cuddapah and Chittoor  districts including the uplands of Mahaboobnagar.
  6.  Instead of allowing about 2000 TMC of Godavari waters flow into the sea every year, a fraction of such water can be used to irrigate about 67 lakhs of acres in the AP State including 12 lakh acres of Kharif paddy in Rayalaseema,  30 lakhs acres of Kharif paddy and 25 lakhs of irrigated dry crops during Rabi totaling 55 lakh acres in Telangana region. 
  7. As there are 2 major dams on Krishna at Srisailam and Nagarjuna Sagar similarly Telangan region can have 2 such large dams one at Suraram in Mahadevpur taluk with FRL at +135m and another dam at Eturunagaram with FRL at +105m with a combined live storage of about 550 TMC However the proposed project at Inchampalli must be given up.  It must be remembered that the difference between 50% and 75% dependable river flows is as large as 1000 TMC in case of Godavari as against only 260 TMC in the case of Krishna river and such flows also can be utilized by constructing large reservoirs on Godavari.
  8. In the case of Godavari large scale flows are available in the 3 months of July, August and September while the flows in October are quite meager and they can be fully utilized by the upper states even without any large storage dams.  As such the magnitude of storage of Godavari water upto the end of September month determines the extent of irrigation under the first and second crops in Telangana, coastal delta and Rayalaseema region. 
  9. However various irrigation schemes in Rayalaseema can have assured irrigation water only when Krishna delta is provided with Godavari waters and about 150 to 200 TMC thus saved at Srisailam can be utilized to irrigate about 12 lakh acres of paddy in Rayalaseema during the Kharif season and for this purpose Pothireddypadu comes in handy. 
  10. Thus there is no scope for irrigated dry during Rabi season for obvious reasons like non-availability of Godavari waters for diversion unless the storages for Karnataka are utilized for this purpose.
  11. Under the lower down reservoir above Eturunagaram the entire dam lies in Andhra Prdesh only FRL +105m against FRL +112.77m at Inchampalli submersion in Madhya Pradesh gets reduced substantially with negligible submersion in Maharashtra for  live storage capacity of about 300 TMC. 
  12. Even at reduced FRL +95m as proposed at Inchampalli in order to get immediate sanction, capacity will be about 150 TMC against only 40 TMC at Inchampalli foundation will be for the ultimate FRL +105m. 
  13. About 90% of the annual yield in small streams and minor rivers and about 80% of the total yield in major rivers is on account of flood flows that occur in 4 months from July to October of the monsoon season.  Even for control of floods there is no alternate except to build big reservoirs because bigger the reservoir, more the moderation of the natural flood.
  14.  Even assuming that the upper states utilize 100 TMC per month during the rainy season covering July to October. AP state can utilize upto 1500 TMC including its unutilized share of about 760 out of 1480 TMC allotted by the Tribunal . 
  15. The proposal of NWDA to construct Inchampalli with FRL at +95m with a live capacity of 40 TMC and a gross capacity of 60 TMC is not helpful as small barrages are not useful for flood control. 
  16. Lift irrigation is unavoidabale to provide irrigation for Telangana lands which are located at high elevation.  Since the maximum flood level at the Railway bridge on Godavari is at +138.m neither Mancherial nor Ramagundam will be effected.  Flood production bunds can be provided for Manthani and a few villages and one or two towns can be shifted to higher ground. 
  17. Submersion in Maharashtra will be about 20,000 ha. under the upper dam.  The lower dam at FRL+150m will be entirely in Andhra Pradesh with a submersion for both the reservoirs works out to about 45,000 ha. as against 57,000 ha contemplated under Inchampalli project as anticipated under the interstate agreement. 
  18. Bigger dams will have lesser submersion per 1 TMC of water stored. While one lakh acres were submerged for 20 lakh acres irrigation under Nagarjunasagar, about 100 acres will be submerged for irrigating about 200 acres will be usually submerged under minor irrigation tanks and hence Bigger dams with large reservoirs must be preferably located in the upper reaches of a major river. 
  19. The cost of this project was estimated at Rs.40,000 crores during the year 2000 and its cost has to be revised with suitable modifications irrigation can be extended upto 100 lakh acres under these 2 dams. 
  20. Further about 150 to 200 TMC OF Godavari flood waters can be offered during July to September for Tamil Nadu and for consequential utilization of additional Cauvery waters by Karnataka which inturn can supply water for irrigating the upland areas of Rayalaseema and Telangana. 
This project must be taken up as an interstate project and it should be developed under a corporation with the joint cooperation of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and the Central Government and should be funded by international funding agencies non-resident Indian and the government of India including the water users in all the concerned states.  This project must be taken up immediately so that the problems of water scarcity for drinking, irrigation, hydro-power generation can be solved within a shorter time without exposing the people to the unavoidable problems of water famine, food famine, unemployment and the consequential social unrest.
A.P. State Government proposal on Jalayagnam covers 74 irrigation projects to provide irrigation for more than one crore acres at a cost of over Rs.1.50 crores.  If the projects have to provide sustainable irrigation and food production in Rayalaseema and South Telangana they must provide 75% dependable water from Krishna water and should not depend on sole krishna flood flows which occur once in about 6 years when there are abnormal  floods due to extreme rains and cyclones.  Some of the projects need dependable river water in Thousand Million Cubic ft. (TMC)  of 30 for Srisailam Left Bank Canal, 25 for Kalwakurti lift, 20 for Bhima lift, 30 for Nettempadu lift, 34 for Telugu Ganga , 38 for Galeru-Nagari, 40 for Handri-Neeva lift, 19 for Srisailam right canal , 16 for Gandikota, 10 for Mylavaram, 4 for Owk, 10 for KC canal. Potireddypadu capacity has been wided from 11,500 to 44,000 cusecs to draw 120 TMC of krishna surplus flows and flood flows within 30 days from Srisailam.  About 112 TMC of Krishna surplus is proposed to be drawn within 30 days for Telugu Ganga, Madras Water supply, Galeru-Nagari, Srisailam Right Bank Canal and Penna-Ahobilam reservoirs.  On the same basis Srisailam Left Bank Canal must be supplied water during 30 days instead of 90 days by constructing  additional balancing reservoirs across the streams and its tunnel must be suitably widened.  Similar changes must be applied for Kalwakurti, Nettempadu and Koyalsagar projects.  Due to extensive irrigation by using pumpsets in Maharashtra and Karnataka the ground water utilisation data from 1970-2000 shows that there is a drastic reduction in ground water table, going down by 20 meters below the bed of Krishna and its tributaries in some places and the loss of inflow into Krishna at Karnataka-Andhra border is estimated to get reduced by 65 TMC.  The regenerated flow anticipated by the Bachawat Tribunal amounting to 70 TMC has become negligible due to intensive irrigation.  Irrigation experts estimated that there is  presently a reduction of 400 TMC out of the 75% dependable flow of 2060 as estimated in 1976.  If the water starved farmers of Rayalaseema, Nalgonda and Mahaboobnagar have to obtain water for drinking, industries and Agriculture at the prescribed dependabilities of 100%, 90% and 75%  respectively as per the policy of Government of India,  the availability of water must be scientifically determined and for this purpose it is necessary to examine the annual water yield, utilization and surplus flows from the main river Krishna and its sub-basins under Tungabhadra and Bhima tributaries.
1. Water availability from Krishna and its 12 sub-divisions: 
The  expert committees have divided the catchment of Krishna river into 12 divisions.  The first division extends from Westernghats to 70 miles along the river covering the districts of Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur and small part of Bijapur.  This section gets an annual flow of 550 to 650 TMC.  Bachawat Tribunal permitted projects for utilizing 230 TMC  and the remaining 320 TMC flows into Karnataka region.  The second division extends upto the confluence of Krishna with its tributary Bhima and the area covers Belgaum, Bijapur, Gulbarga with  a small portion of Sangli.  The water generated in this section is 35 TMC where as Bachawat permitted projects to utilize 400 TMC including Alamatti project which is part of Upper Krishna Project including Hipparigi barrage, and Narayanapur projects for which 160 TMC is allotted.  The 3rd division comprises Ghataprabha catchment covering Belgaum and Bijapur and small portions of Ratnagiri and Kolhapur. The water generated is 130 TMC while Bachawat permitted the utilisation for 100 TMC.  The 4th division covers Malaprabha catchment covering Dharvad, Bijapur and Belgaum.  The water availability is 55 TMC and Bachawat permitted utilization of 56 TMC.  The 5th division covers upper Bhima catchment upto the confluence of Sina tributary with Bhima river comprising the areas of Puna, Satara, Ahmednagar, Sholapur and Osmanabad in addition to small part of Bijapur.  The water produced in this division is 365 TMC while Bachawat permitted projects for utilizing 328 TMC.  The 6th division extends over 110 miles between the junction points of Sina river with Bhima and Bhima with river Krishna.  This lower Bhima catchment covers Bijapur, Gulbarga and Bidar with small portions of Maharashtra districts.  The water generated in this region 55 TMC while Bachawat Tribunal permitted projects for utilization of 50 TMC.  The 7th division covers lower Krishna basin from the junction of Bhima with Krishna upto Bay of Bengal with the exclusion of Tungabhadra, Musi, Paleru and Munneru.  This area covers parts of Raichur, Hyderabad, Nalgonda, Kurnool, Krishna and Guntur.  This area gets water yield of 126 TMC but Bachawat permitted projects for utilizing 576 TMC.  The 8th division comprises Tungabhadra catchment excluding Vedavati and covers Shimoga, Chikamagalur, Chitradurg, Dharwad, Ballary, Raichur and Kurnool.  The water availability is 430 TMC  while Bahawat Tribunal permitted projects for utilization of 420 TMC.  The 9th division covers Hagary, alias, Vedavati catchment which produces 56 TMC while Bachawat permitted projects for utilization of 54 TMC.  The 10th division covers Musi river catchment which produces 46 TMC of water while Bachawat permitted utilization of 34 TMC.  The 11th division covers Paleru river that produces 16 TMC of water while Bachawat tribunal permitted utilization of 10 TMC.  The last division No.12 covers Muneru catchment which produces 78 TMC while Bachawat permitted utilization of 36 TMC.
2. Illegal water diversions by Maharashtra and Karnataka:
According to Bachawat tribunal Maharashtra and Karnataka have to construct projects for utilisation of Krishna water upto specified limits under each specified sub-basin.  But the upper states have  recently constructed projects that were rejected by the Bachawat tribunal for making illegal use of additional waters of Krishna river by violating the orders of Bachawat Tribunal.  For instance Bachawat Tribunal permitted for Upper Krishna project comprising Hippargi barrage, Alamatti and Narayanapur combined reservoirs  the use of 155 TMC.  But Karnataka has increased the size of the Alamatti dam, installed many lift irrigation pumps  and widened the irrigation canal sections under this project for illegal diversion of more than 150 TMC of water.  Moreover it has prepared a master plan not only to utilize its allotted share of 734 TMC of Krishna water but also illegally divert 422 TMC of Krishna water raising the storage in Alamatti dam upto a level of 528 meters.  But Maharashtra has also copied the example of Karnataka for using not only its allotted share of 585 TMC  but also has constructed many barrages and installed lift schemes on their reservoirs for illegal diversion of more than 500 TMC of Krishna waters.  The Karnataka state Government appointed an expert committee to submit a report on the illegal projects taken up by Maharashtra on the basis of a report submitted by Sri.Panchappa Kalburgi, Opposition leader in Bijapur Panchayat Samiti alleging illegal diversion of 500 TMC  of Krishna water by Maharashtra Government.  The expert committee headed by the Chief Engineer of Gulbarga irrigation circle of Karnataka Government found that Maharashtra has made excess storage of 165 TMC of Krishna waters through various illegal projects for making excessive use of about 300 TMC of Krishna waters . In addition Maharashtra is spending more than Rs.500 crores to divert 130 TMC of Krishna water through a tunnel from Patan taluk under Krishna-Bhima stabilization project that discharges 68 TMC into Ujjani reservoir on Bhima river.  Among the many projects taken up by Maharashtra there are many illegal projects which have been rejected by Bachawat Tribunal.  The following projects are on Krishna river Balakwadi, Dhom, Nagewadi, Mahu, Kudal, Kaner, Uramodi, Tarali, Uttarmand, Kodaki, Koyna, Kera project site, Morana, Guredhar, Wang, Aivatima, Soli, Varna, Kadavi, Kasari, Kumbi, Damani, Radhanagari, Tusasi, Kallammvadi, Patgoan, Hiranyakeshi, Chikotra, Chitri, Patakwati, Jabare, Jangamhatti, Nehar, Uralwadi, Siddewari and Basappawadi. The following projects are on Bhima river Chilewadi, Pimpalgoan Jogi, Pushpawati, Manikdoh, Yadgoan, Vadaj, Dinche, Ghod, Visapur, Kalodi, Bouskman, Bamasked, Anda Talav, Vadivale, Shirvacha, Aimal, Lonawala, Jadhav Wadi, Pavana, Mulashi, Kasar Sahi, Timghar, Parasgoan, Kadakvasala, Gunjwani, Pansheth, Ujjani, Chirmodi, Bhatgoan, Niradevphal, Veer, Andali, Muswad, Ranand, Katghal, Padvalkarwadi, Chikalagi, Doddnala, Sankh, Bhivaragi, Kada, Kambli, Mahakari, Sena Nigad, Rooti, Mangi Talav, Bhanganga and Sakath
3. Reasons for non-arrival of Krishna, Bhima and Tungabhadar waters into Srisailam Reservoir:
In view of of the hundreds of projects, barrages, diversion weirs and lift schemes taken up by Maharashtra  there is no possibility for Upper Krishna river water to reach the Alamatti reservoir in Karnataka.  Consequently the normal flows for Alamatti dam cannot reach in sufficient quantities for utilization by any irrigation projects in Andhra Pradesh as anticipated by the Bachawat Tribunal that allocated to A.p.state about 500 TMC of water produced from the Upper states of Maharashtra and Karnataka.  In view of the large scale diversions of Tungabhadra water by Karnataka there cannot be any over flow from Tungabhadra and Bhima rivers also into Andhra Pradesh except during years of heavy rainfall due to intense cyclones that cause heavy floods.  Maharashtra and Karnataka will permit Krishna river flows into Andhra Pradesh only when the floods threaten the safety of the dams in Maharashtra and Karnataka.  Hence Andhra Pradesh must investigate on the nature and magnitude of illegal water projects taken up by Maharashtra and Karnataka on Krishna, Bhima and Tungabhadra and their tributaries and fight along with Karnataka against the illegal projects so that atleast the minimum river flows are permitted into Andhra Pradesh for ecological purposes like drinking, irrigation, fisheries protection and environmental sustainability of wild life in Andhra Pradesh.
In order to resolve this serious problem of water scaricity for making available dependable water for irrigation in Rayalaseema the following projects for diversion of Indrawati water through Penganga into Srisailam Reservoir amounting to 500 TMC and another project also prepared by National Water Development Agency to link up Alamatti with Pennar must be taken up as National projects to save the interests of the farmers of Rayalaseema in particular and Andhra Pradesh in general.  The details of these projects formulated by the Union Ministry of Andhra Pradesh for the benefit of the people of Andhra Pradesh are presented here.
These web sites show that Maharashtra is using 1100 TMC in place of 585 TMC in Krishna river water share including 50 TMC extra from Bhima river basi,thereby making the karnataka portions get dry earlier
The Proposal: For interlinking Krishna with Pennar, three links are envisaged.  Almatti -Pennar is the first link.  This link will divert 1,980 Mcum of water and will provide enroute irrigation to 2.58 lakh hectares (1.76 lakh hectares in Andhra Pradesh and 0.82 lakh hectares in Karnataka), utilizing 1,714 Mcum of water.   A provision of 56 Mcum has been made towards domestic & industrial requirement enroute.  The quantum of water diverted through this link canal will be made available at Almatti in exchange of the surplus waters of Mahanadi and Godavari basins transferred to Nagarjunasagar from the river Godavari. This link canal will run for a length of 587 km., which includes 5 tunnels of different lengths totaling 35.66 km. 
Engineering Aspect: The link proposes to utilize the Existing Almatti reservoir in Krishna basin, which is a component of the ongoing Upper Krishna Project with a gross storage capacity of 3,440 Mcum at FRL 519.60 m under Stage-II. Along with this ongoing project, one more reservoir at Kalvapalli and the existing tank at Bukkapatnam in Pennar basin are also proposed as the head works required for the link canal.  The total length of the conveyance system is 587 km including 5 tunnels to cross ridges and avoid heavy cutting.  The link canal is proposed to be operated for 180 days from June to November in a year with a designed discharge of 230 cumecs at head.  The canal takes off from Almatti reservoir at FSL 510 m and crosses Tungabhadra and Vedavathi rivers and joins the proposed Kalvapalli reservoir on Pennar river and runs further to join the stream of Maddileru a tributary of Pennar river via existing Bukkapatnam tank.  The diversion is entirely by gravity.
Environmental Issue: The existing Almatti reservoir submerges a total area of 48,787 ha.  About 22 villages with 80,000 populations will be affected due to the project.  Along the canal alignment about 71 ha of forest land will come under submergence for which a compensatory afforestation programme for 142 ha of land have been evolved in order to compensate loss of vegetation.
 Among the tributaries of the Godavari, the Sabari, the Indravati and the Wainaganga contribute most of the surplus.  There is a natural-by-junction of the river Upper Kolab in the Upper reache sand the Indravati, where the right bank of the Sabari on this point into Indravati and take advantage of the regulated releases from upper kolab. This will augment the supply in the Indravati valley and ultimately in the proposed link.  The livestorage on the Upper Kolab is 0.789 TMCum (27.863 TMC) With this it may be possible to tap a contribution of about 1.2234 TMCum. (43.204TMC)from the upper kolab.  It is proposed to have a series of dams on the Indravati to stroe water and have regulated releases for successive power generation. With this net work of storages in the Sabari-Indravati Complex it is expected that 12.3 TMCum.(434.374 TMC) of surplus waters will be made available for utilization in this link after committed utilization in the basin itself.  It is expected that within the basin the scope for local utilization is rather limited as the areas is hilly covered with thick forests.
The FRL at Dhudma dam site at Indravati is [proposed to be +228.66 M (750ft) It is contemplated to take out a link canal from this dam which will run in a North Western direction and will be connected to a tributary of Wainaganga which   joins it at the Garchirioli site.  The length of the link will be about 126km (80 miles) including the river reach.  All the waters brought by the Sabari-Indravati-link up will be transferred through this link to Wainagaga at Garchiroli. The dam site is proposed at Garchiroli with an FRL of 218 m (715ft) to store about 4,933 TMCum (174.209 tmc) of waters there.  It is proposed to have a transfer of total 16.04 TMCum (566.453TMC) OF WATERS FROM Sabari-Indravati-Wainganga Link-up from Garchiroli.  A link canal has been proposed to take off at an elevation +213.11m (700) and follow a contour canal alignment with a bad slope 1m in 10’5km .  The waters are then lifted in successive reaches by about 122M (480ft) to cross Warangal ridge between Godavari and Krishna Basin.
The canal ultimately tails into reservoir at Srisailam on the Krishna at +885ft.  A toal tunnel length of 94.5km (59miles) is involved in three reaches.  The first two reaches are just before the Godavari crossing, accountisng for 54.5km (34miles) and the 3rd reach is just before the Srisailam reservoir.  The total length of the link Wainganga to Srisailam works out to 650km (406miles).  A bed slope of 1m in 1.05km (1’in 2 miles) is provided for in the link.  After the link crosses the Godavari, it irrigates an area of 0.323 million ha. (0.798 million acres) utilisisng 1.85 TMCum. ( 65.333 TMC0 of waters en-route to Srisailam reservoir.  Thus, in effect 14.18 TMCum (500.767 TMC of waters are transferred to the Krishna rivers through Sabari, Indravati, Wainaganga-Krishna link.
It is proposed to transfer 14.18TMCum (500.76 7 TMC) of waters brought through the link described above southward for utilization in Rayalaseema and Tamilnadu areas.  A link canal has been proposed to take off at elevation +265.24m (870) from the Srisailam reservoir for transfer of 14.18 TMCum (500.767tmc) southward.  Thealignemnts follows generally, the alignments proposed for the Srisailam Right Bank canal, proposed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh.  This link tails off to the Gandikota reservoir proposed tobe constructed on Pennar with FRL of 228.65(750’) It has been envisaged that the canal will provide irrigation to the Rayalaseema areas in the region of Kurnool-Cuddapah canal and the Sangameswar canal system to provide additional irrigation of 0.4897 million ha.  (1.21million acres) utilizing 2.96 TMCUM (104.532tmc of waters.   Thus 11.225TMCum. (396.411 TMC) of water will actually be transferred to the Pennar at Gandikota.  The live storage of 3.7TMCUM (130.666 TMC) has been proposed here.  The length of Srisailam-Gandikota link will be 184km  (115tmc) and will have a bed slope of 1m in 10.5 km
AT Gandikota 0.986 tmcum. (34.820tmc) of water is proposed to be released for utilisation in the delta areas of existing Pennar irrigation.  Thus an equivalent of 0.886 TMcum of waters which flow to the delta is proposed to be tapped in the drought prone areas.  Thus 0.986 TMCum (34.820tmc) of waters will be rendered surplus for utilization in the drought prone areas of Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh in Upper Pennar reach
Besides the above, 10.24 TMCum. (361.626 tmc) of waters will be released in the Pennar river and tapped at the proposed barrage at Proddatur on the Pennar for diversion south-ward.  The pond level in this barrage is proposed to be +152.44 m (500ft) and a canal is to take off from this point and run through Rayalaseema areas and Tamilnadu as a contour canal and tail off into the pond at upper anicuts on Cauvery +76.22m  The length of the link from Proddatur to upper anicuts will be 800km and willhave a bed slope of 1m in 10.5km (1’in 2miles) The link envisages provision of irrigation to an area of 0.1647 million ha (0.407 million acres) in Rayalaseema areas of Andhra Pradesh utilizing 0.986 TMCum (34.820tmc) of waters and 0.592 millionha. (1.463million acres) of irrigation in Tamilnadu utilizing 4.317tmcum (152.455tmc) of waters.  This liknk in Andhra Pradesh will pass through a tunnel of about 9.6km (6miles length.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:   Former Karnataka leaders Sri.K.Ramakrishna Hedge, former Chief Minister of Karnataka who worked as Dy.Chariman, Planning Commission during 1970s and former Union Minister Sri.Sankaraanand who worked as Union Minister have worked hard to help Karnataka farmers to obtain more water from Krishna river by using their good offices to secure higher share of water for storage with an increased height of Alamatti dam at any cost have also graciously conceded the demands of the water deficit Krishna delta farmers and devised alternate methods of supplying Godavari water by transfering the same from upper reaches of Sabari, Indravati and Wainaganga for transfering about 500 TMC into Srisailam reservoir for utilisation by the Telangana, Krishna delta farmers and also by proposing a link from Alamatti to Pennar for supplying water to the farmers of Rayalaseema.  This planning was done at their instance during 1970s and 1980s and for their well intention actions however unpalitable they may be for the irrigation engineers and politicians of Andhra Pradesh and consequently they proposed that these projects must be taken up in the national interest by the Union Government.  Now the Second Krishna Tribunal by its recent orders has ensured materialisation of these dreams of the Karnataka and Maharashtra leaders and it is now for the Andhra Pradesh leaders and the Andhra Pradesh farmers and farm workers to demand their elected representatives in the state legislature and parliament to exert pressure over the Government to take up these schemes as national projects for ensurisng sustainable development of the state and the nation.

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Born in 1932 at Mudinepalli, near Gudivada, Krishna Dist. Andhra Pradesh, received Bachelors degree in Civil Engg., from Viswesaraiah Engineering College, Banglore (1956) and Masters Degree in Environmental Engineering from Rice university, Houston, Texas, (USA) (1962), Ph.D (Hony). Former Head of the Department of Civil Engineering and principal of College of Engineering, Andhra university.Formerly Hony.Professor in Andhra University,Manonmanian Sundarnar University,JNT University. Fellow of the Institution of Engineers,India Recipient of the University Grants Commissions National Award "Swami Pranavananda Award on Ecology and Environmental Sciences" for the year 1991. Recipient of Sivananda Eminent Citizen Award for 2002 by Sanathana Dharma Charitable Trust, Andhra Pradesh state. Presently Working as Director, centre for Environmental Studies, GITAM University, http://www.geocities.com/prof_shivajirao/resume.html http://www.eoearth.org/contributor/Shivaji.rao